AbstractThis study examined differences in minor hockey athletes' experiences according to the year their league implemented the Respect in Sport Parent Program (RiSPP). Athletes (N = 68) completed online measures of spectators' behaviours (Omli & LaVoi, 2009), prosocial and antisocial behaviours (Kavussanu & Boardley, 2009), and parental support and pressure (Anderson et al., 2003). One way ANOVAs revealed significant differences in athletes' perceptions of parental support (F (2, 60) = 3.34, p < .05, ?2 = .07), prosocial behaviours towards teammates (F (2, 61) = 4.60, p < .05, ?2 = .10), and antisocial behaviours towards opponents (F (2, 61) = 3.88, p < .05, ?2 = .08). Athletes in leagues that had adopted the RiSPP in 2011 reported significantly higher parental support (M = 3.88, SD = .16) compared to athletes in leagues which did not have the program (M = 3.53, SD = .43; p < .05), higher prosocial behaviours towards teammates (M = 4.58, SD = .55) than athletes in leagues that had adopted the program in 2014/15 (M = 4.06, SD = .59; p < .05), and higher prosocial behaviour towards opponents (M = 2.57, SD = 1.21) than athletes in leagues that had adopted the program in 2014/15 (M = 1.68, SD = .80; p < .05). Large effect sizes were found for all significant differences between groups. There were no significant differences in perceptions of parental pressure or spectator behaviours. These results suggest the RiSPP is associated with positive athlete experiences in sport; adoption of the program may also reflect leagues' prioritization of positive athlete experiences.
Acknowledgments: This research was supported by a SSHRC Partnership Development Grant awarded to the first author.