Social and individual reference norm and physical self-concept


When analyzing the correlations between motor abilities and physical self-concept of children, most studies concentrate on direct interrelations between performance and self-evaluation. Only a few studies deal with the reference norm orientation in terms of internal and external frame of reference, although there is evidence that in sport external frame of reference might moderate the interrelationship (Tietjens & Niewerth, 2005).Aim of the study is to analyze the correlation pattern of motor performance, physical self-concept, global self-evaluation and reference norm orientation. This study of 128 (female 44.5%; Mage = 11,57; SD=.622) fifth and six graders examines the differences in physical self-concept (PSC-C, Dreiskämper et al., 2015), preferred reference norm orientation (RNO, internal/external), and motor performance (DMT 6-18, Bös et al., 2008) in respect to age, gender, and sports club membership, as well as the relationship between these constructs. Comparisons between gender and age are made and structural equation modeling is performed to analyze pathways between the factors.With regard to PSK, significant gender differences (F(8, 103)=3.32, p<.001 ?²=.205) are confirmed in MANOVAs in favor of boys on strength and endurance as well as significant differences concerning club membership (F(8, 104)=3.32, p=.006 ?²=.181) in almost all scales (except strength, coordination and global self worth). SEM shows that IRNO (ß = .40) and ERNO (ß= .30) moderate the interrelation between motor abilities and PSC. Physical self-concept and global self-evaluation correlate significantly with each other (r = .64). The results indicate that children in this age group use both internal and external frames of reference to evaluate their performance independently from type and extent of their sport activity.