Taking steps to inclusion: A content analysis of a teaching resource aimed to enhance inclusive physical education


Background: Teachers are components to successful implementation of school-based strategies to enhance physical activity (PA), such as inclusive physical education (IPE). However, it has been suggested that teachers are insufficiently prepared to conduct PE classes that are inclusive of students with disabilities (SWD). Steps to Inclusion (SI), a teacher resource produced by Ophea, aims to support teachers in achieving IPE. However, a comprehensive review of the resource content has not been conducted. This research is rooted within two guiding theories, a) the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) for understanding behaviour change content within interventions and b) indicators of quality PA participation; an experiential conceptualization of PA for SWD. Objective: To analyze the SI to identify theory-based behaviour change content and factors related to quality PA participation for SWD. Methods: Utilizing a deductive approach, a content analysis was performed by two independent coders. Results: With regard to the TDF, the majority of the SI content related to information regarding knowledge (24.1%), environmental context and resources (18.2%), and beliefs about capabilities (18.0%). However, content related to intentions was nonexistent. In relation to the six core elements of quality PA participation, almost half (47.4%) of the content pertained to belongingness. Conclusions: Teachers require an enhanced understanding of IPE along with resources for appropriate implementation. The results suggest that the SI is attempting to fill these gaps. However, SI fails to address intentions, which have been strongly linked to behavioural performance. These findings will inform the design of future supplemental resources.

Acknowledgments: CDPP