Confirmatory factor analysis of the musician's self-regulation imagery scale


Many musicians experience debilitating music performance anxiety (MPA) (Papageorgi, Creech, & Welch, 2013) and mental imagery has been used to help performers manage anxiety. MPA treatment literature has been dominated by relaxation-based performance imagery (Finch & Moscovitch, 2016). However, sport researchers additionally advocate for imagery that integrates heightened arousal (e.g., Cumming, Olphin & Law, 2007). Indeed, the Yerkes-Dodson Law (Yerkes & Dodson, 1908) suggests that relaxation imagery might not benefit all musicians. We previously investigated musicians' use of imagery containing different levels of arousal (e.g., relaxation, "psyching-up") by developing the Musician's Self-Regulation Imagery Scale (MSRIS), which is similar to the motivational-general subscales of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998). Exploratory analyses suggested that the MSRIS captures mastery and high arousal performance imagery (Finch & Oakman, in prep.). The current study sought to replicate and extend previous findings by confirming the factor structure of the MSRIS, and investigating its relation to MPA, imagery vividness, and expertise. Participants (N = 363) completed an online study including standardized questionnaires and the MSRIS. Confirmatory factor analysis model fit indices supported a two-factor solution with mastery and high arousal subscales, 2 = 13.86, df = 8, p = .086, RMSEA = .052 and CFI = .995. Additionally, our measure subscales were associated with MPA, imagery vividness, and expertise. We will discuss the clinical implications of our findings, which will also help inform future MPA imagery research.