Video speed demonstration under mixed-modeling conditions does not influence learning of a novel motor skill


Speed of a video demonstration has been manipulated by few researchers, mainly with an interest in slow-motion versus real-time. These few experiments yielded conflicting evidence regarding the benefits of slow-motion video. Further, video demonstration speed research has only included observation of a single model type; however, recent research has shown learning advantages for the use of mixed-models over that of single model types. Given this, and the contradictory findings concerning video speed, the aim here was to explore the effects of slow-motion video demonstration under mixed-modeling conditions (skilled model plus self-observation) on the learning of a novel motor skill. Fifty-one participants were tasked with learning a pirouette-en-dehors while assigned to one of three groups with different mixed-model observation video speeds: (1) slow-motion (2) real-time, or (3) a combination of slow-motion and real-time. Following a pre-test, participants received 72 practice trials, divided into eight blocks, comprised of five physical and four observational practice trials. Physical performance and cognitive representation assessments were completed at pre-test, after even-numbered blocks, and at a 24-hour post-test. Participants' scores improved for both physical performance and cognitive representation assessments throughout acquisition (p<.001) and scores were higher at post-test when compared to pre-test (p<.001). There were no significant differences between the groups. Thus, under mixed-modeling conditions, slow-motion video demonstration (either alone or combined with real-time speed) did not provide additional learning benefits over real-time demonstration.