Preliminary criterion validity for the adult-oriented sport coaching survey: Associations with key psychosocial variables


Qualitative studies highlight the use of adult-oriented coaching as an alternative to traditional pedagogical practices when coaching Masters athletes (MAs; Callary et al., 2017). Studies have yet to quantitatively assess associations between various adult-oriented coaching practices and MAs' psychosocial outcomes. Four-hundred-and two MAs (Mage = 55.91, SD = 10.41) completed an online questionnaire comprising the Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey (AOSCS; Rathwell et al., 2019), Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sports and Psychological Needs Thwarting scales, Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CARQ), and items for liking, commitment, and investment. Cross-sectional relationships were analyzed using structural equation modeling. "Considering MAs' individuality" associated with autonomy satisfaction (Blocus causality = .42; Bvolition = .43), as did "respecting MAs' preferences for effort, accountability and feedback" (Bchoice = .43); these same practices related to autonomy frustration (Bs > -.40). "Respecting preferences" associated with competence frustration (B = -.37) as did "framing learning situations" (.38). "Creating personalized programming" related to CARQ commitment (B = .40). "Considering individuality" (B = .31) and "respecting preferences" (.36) each associated with CARQ closeness, with the latter also relating to CARQ complementarity (.37). MAs' liked to go to practice because of their coach when they reported having coaches who were "respecting their preferences" (B = .46), and they wanted to invest in sport more because of their coach when their coach "created personalized programming" (.27). Results support criterion validity for the AOSCS by demonstrating relations between discrete factors representing adult-oriented coaching and key outcomes for psychological needs, and indicators of a quality coach-athlete relationship.

Acknowledgments: This research was supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.