Imagery and modeling influences on team sport athletes' collective efficacy


Self-efficacy Theory identifies both imagery and modeling as important contributors to efficacy beliefs (Bandura, 1997). Research on use of these mental skills among athletes participating in team sport suggests mastery imagery (i.e., MG-M; Munroe-Chandler & Hall, 2004; Shearer et al., 2007) and use of observation-based interventions (Bruton et al., 2014) contribute to collective efficacy beliefs; however, the relative contribution of these mental skills is unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore whether use of the functions of imagery and modeling contribute to team sport athletes' collective efficacy beliefs. Athletes (n = 88; 60% female; M = 22.40 years, SD = 7.82) currently competing in team sports self-reported their use of the functions of imagery (SIQ-TS; Curtin et al., 2016) and modeling (FOLQ; Cumming et al., 2005) as well as their individual level perceptions of their team's collective efficacy (CEQS; Short et al., 2005) with respect to their primary sport. Regression analyses were conducted separately for all CEQS subscales (Ability, Effort, Preparation, Persistence, Unity) and total CEQS (R2adj = .13-.35, ps < .05). MS imagery alone significantly predicted persistence and unity beliefs, while MG-M imagery was also a significant contributor to ability, effort, preparation, and total collective efficacy beliefs. In addition, the strategy function of modeling significantly predicted both effort and preparation beliefs. The findings provide preliminary support for the relative contributions of imagery and modeling to collective efficacy beliefs. Discussion will focus on the theoretical and practical implications for developing mental skills interventions targeting collective efficacy.