Testing the Applicability of a Competing Values Framework-based 360° Leadership Feedback with Coaches in the German Gymnastics Federation


Aim. Our aim was to implement a leadership assessment based on the Competing Values Framework (Quinn, 1984) in a competitive sport setting. Contrasting leadership roles that reflect complex coaching behavior in sport can be mapped using the CVF supplemented with visionary-charismatic leadership. This concept precisely describes an individual’s ability to exhibit a wide range of contrasting behaviors (Lawrence et al., 2009). Thus it has the potential to deepen our understanding of coaches’ successful leadership behavior. However, to date, no studies have examined the applicability of the CVF in sport settings. Method. 21 national coaches (trampoline, rhythmic gymnastics, gymnastic; age M=44.73, female 52%) and 241 external reviewers (athletes, colleagues, and supervisors) were recruited (360 feedback). Context-adequate modified questionnaires by Lawrence et al. (2009) (collaboration, creativity, control, competition, omega=.57 - .90; 1=disagree to 5=agree) as well as Bastardoz (2020) (charisma, omega= .63 - .80; 1=disagree to 5=agree) were filled in separately by coaches (self-image, SI) and reviewers (external-image, EI). Results. Coaches showed high values in all leadership roles (SI: M=3.25–4.33, SD=.35-.87; EI: M=3.60–4.21, SD=.61-.88). Male and female coaches consistently rated themselves equally (p>.05, except for competition Mm=4.06 Mf=3.76 p<.05). No differences were found between the reviewer groups (p>.05) and different sports (p>.05). Discussion. EI feedback matches coaches’ SI and is homogenous. Unexpectedly, gender differences were not found for SI, with SI showing high scores throughout all leadership dimensions. Limitations are the small sample size of coaches and a potentially positive selection bias. Nevertheless, the diagnostics are applicable for the context.