My parents think I can play...kind of: Relationships between rise, self-efficacy and parent other-efficacy within youth sport


Relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE) beliefs (appraisals of how another views one’s competence) are thought to be important in relationships where there is a power differential (e.g., coach-athlete, parent-child). While the importance of RISE beliefs have been demonstrated in multiple physical-activity domains, there is little understanding of RISE beliefs within youth sport, a context which captures both coach-athlete and parent-child relationships.  As part of a larger project examining youth sport, the current work explored the relationships between RISE beliefs and youth’s self-efficacy and potential predictors of RISE beliefs. Youth participating in recreational sport (N=219, Mage=12yrs) completed measures of RISE as referenced to perceptions of parents’, as well as coach’s, self-efficacy, sport satisfaction, family support and parental overprotection; their parents completed measures of other-efficacy (confidence in their child’s abilities).  Children reported high RISE (parents: M=8.29) and high self-efficacy (M=8.25) while parents reported comparatively lower other-efficacy (M=7.83, p<.001). Both parent and coach referenced RISE beliefs were positively associated with children’s self-efficacy and sport satisfaction and higher self-efficacy was associated with greater satisfaction (p’s<.001).  Regression analyses revealed RISE (parents) and RISE (coach) to be significant predictors of self-efficacy accounting for 54% and 9% of the overall variance respectively.  Further, family support (B=.39) and parents’ other-efficacy (B=.18) were significant predictors of RISE (R2adj=.20).  This data provides an initial demonstration of these theorized relationships within youth sport, highlighting the discrepancy between youth and parent perceptions.  Further, these findings give rise to the question “Who has the more accurate view of the children’s abilities; parents, coaches or the children?”  Depending on the answer there are different implications.

Acknowledgments: The project is supported by a Sport Participation Research Initiative (SPRI) grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC 862-2011-0006) and Sport Canada.